Most military surgeons were political appointees or worse

FACT:  By late 1862, early 1863 Union and Confederate medical services went to great lengths to examine (oral and written) their previously commissioned and new surgeon candidates.  Higher standards were set for surgeon and assistant surgeon and by early 1863 most of the men practicing as military surgeons or contract civilian doctors were suitably skilled for their roles. The others who were political appointees or worse with no measurable medical skills were discharged from their respective armies.

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